Bianca de Bortoli
With the conflict in Syria showing no signs of cessation, the sub-state armed groups and their ideologies continue to plague the country and all those remaining. As stories of sex slavery, forced labour and kidnappings continue to emerge, questions of accountability are permeating the international arena.
Most notably, since the eastern governorates of Ar-Raqqa and Deir ez-Zour were taken by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) – also referred to as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS); the Islamic State (IS), and daesh in Arabic – the country’s ranking as a transit and destination country for forced labour and sexual exploitation continues to significantly increase. The outbreak of violence in March 2011, the deteriorating economy, and peoples’ subsequent inability to acquire their daily needs, has seen the Syrian